life [life lives] BrE [laɪf]
NAmE [laɪf]
noun (pl. lives BrE [laɪvz]
; NAmE [laɪvz]
1. uncountable the ability to breathe, grow, reproduce, etc. which people, animals and plants have before they die and which objects do not have
life and death
The body was cold and showed no signs of life.
My father died last year— I wish I could bring him back to life.
In spring the countryside bursts into life.
2. uncountable, countable the state of being alive as a human; an individual person's existence
The floods caused a massive loss of life (= many people were killed).
He risked his life to save his daughter from the fire.
Hundreds of lives were threatened when the building collapsed.
The operation saved her life.
My grandfather lost his life (= was killed) in the war.
Several attempts have been made on the President's life (= several people have tried to kill him).  
3. uncountable living things
plant/animal life
marine/pond life
Is there intelligent life on other planets?  
4. countable, uncountable the period between sb's birth and their death; a part of this period
He's lived here all his life.
I've lived in England for most of my life.
to have a long/short life
He became very weak towards the end of his life.
Brenda took up tennis late in life.
He will spend the rest of his life (= until he dies) in a wheelchair.
There's no such thing as a job for life any longer.
She is a life member of the club.
in early/adult life
see also change of life
5. countable (used with an adjective) a period of sb's life when they are in a particular situation or job
She has been an accountant all her working life.
He met a lot of interesting people during his life as a student.
They were very happy throughout their married life.
6. countable the period of time when sth exists or functions
The International Stock Exchange started life as a London coffee shop.
They could see that the company had a limited life (= it was going to close).
In Italy the average life of a government is eleven months.
see also shelf life  
7. uncountable the punishment of being sent to prison for life; life imprisonment
The judge gave him life.
She is doing life for murder.  
8. uncountable the experience and activities that are typical of all people's existences
the worries of everyday life
He is young and has little experience of life.
Commuting is a part of daily life for many people.
Jill wants to travel and see life for herself.
We bought a dishwasher to make life easier.
In London life can be hard.
In real life (= when she met him) he wasn't how she had imagined him at all.
Life can be difficult when you move to a new town.
Life isn't like in the movies, you know.
9. uncountable, countable the activities and experiences that are typical of a particular way of living
country/city life
She enjoyed political life.
family/married life
How do you find life in Japan?
10. countable a person's experiences during their life; the activities that form a particular part of a person's life
He has had a good life.
a hard/an easy life
My day-to-day life is not very exciting.
a life of luxury
Her daily life involved meeting lots of people.
She lived a quiet life in the countryside.
Many of these children have led very sheltered lives (= they have not had many different experiences).
They emigrated to start a new life in Canada.
He doesn't like to talk about his private life.
She has a full social life.
articles about the love lives of the stars
see also sex life  
11. uncountable the quality of being active and exciting
Syn: vitality
This is a great holiday resort that is full of life.  
12. uncountable a living model or a real object or scene that people draw or paint
She had lessons in drawing from life.
a life class (= one in which art students draw a naked man or woman)
see also still life  
13. countable a story of sb's life
Syn: biography
She wrote a life of Mozart.  
14. countable one of a set number of chances before a player is out of a game
He's lost two lives, so he's only got one left.
more at you can bet your life/your bottom dollar (on sth/(that)…) at bet v., the breath of life at breath, breathe (new) life into sth at breathe, the change of life at change n., depart this life at depart, a dog's life at dog n., end your days/life at end v., a fact of lifethe facts of life at fact, in fear of your life at fear n., fight for (your) life at fight v., within an inch of your life at inch n., kiss of life at kiss n., large as lifelarger than life at large, a new lease of life at lease, light of sb's life at light n., a matter of life and death at matter n., make sb's life a misery at misery, have nine lives at nine, risk life and limb at risk v., not be able to do sth to save your life at save v., a slice of life at slice n., spring into/to life at spring v., the staff of life at staff n., that's the story of my life at story, at my, your, his, etc. time of lifehave the time of your life at time n., true to life at true adj., variety is the spice of life at variety, a walk of life at walk n., a/the/sb's way of life at way n.
Idioms: bring somebody to life come to life for dear life for the life of you for your life full of life get a life lay down your life lead the life of Riley life after death life and soul of the party life is cheap life of its own life's too short make life difficult man in your life not on your life scare the life out of somebody somebody's life take somebody's life take your life take your life in your hands that's life where there's life
Word Origin:
Old English līf, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch lijf, German Leib ‘body’, also to live 1.
life noun
1. U, C
The body was cold and showed no signs of life.
existence • • survival
Opp: death
sb/sth's very/continued/day-to-day life/existence/survival
threaten sb/sth's life/existence/survival
fight for your life/survival
2. C, U
I've lived here all my life.
lifetime • • career • • in sb's day
in/of sb's life/lifetime/career/day
during sb's life/lifetime/career
a life/lifetime/career of doing sth
3. C
How do you find life in America?
lifestyle • • way of life • • living • • existence
(sb's) day-to-day life/living/existence
a comfortable/busy life/lifestyle/existence
have/lead/enjoy a… life/lifestyle/existence
4. U
We need to inject some new life into this project.
energy • • vitality • • fire • • dynamism • • spark • • gusto • • zest|BrE vigour|AmE vigor
new life/energy/vitality/zest/vigour
be full of life/energy/vitality/fire/dynamism/zest/vigour
The living world
animals mate/breed/reproduce/feed (on sth)
fish/amphibians swim/spawn (= lay eggs)
birds fly/migrate/nest/sing
insects crawl/fly/bite/sting
insects/bees/locusts swarm
bees collect/gather nectar/pollen
spiders spin/weave a web
snakes/lizards shed their skins
bears/hedgehogs/frogs hibernate
insect larvae grow/develop/pupate
an egg/a chick/a larva hatches
attract/find/choose a mate
produce/release eggs/sperm
lay/fertilize/incubate/hatch eggs
inhabit a forest/a reef/the coast
mark/enter/defend (a) territory
stalk/hunt/capture/catch/kill prey
Plants and fungi
trees/plants grow/bloom/blossom/flower
a seed germinates/sprouts
leaves/buds/roots/shoots appear/develop/form
flower buds swell/open
a fungus grows/spreads/colonizes sth
pollinate/fertilize a flower/plant
produce/release/spread/disperse pollen/seeds/spores
produce/bear fruit
develop/grow/form roots/shoots/leaves
provide/supply/absorb/extract/release nutrients
perform/increase/reduce photosynthesis
Bacteria and viruses
bacteria/microbes/viruses grow/spread/multiply
bacteria/microbes live/thrive in/on sth
bacteria/microbes/viruses evolve/colonize sth/cause disease
bacteria break sth down/convert sth (into sth)
a virus enters/invades sth/the body
a virus mutates/evolves/replicates (itself)
be infected with/contaminated with/exposed to a new strain of a virus/drug-resistant bacteria
contain/carry/harbour (especially US) harbor bacteria/a virus
kill/destroy/eliminate harmful/deadly bacteria
Example Bank:
He always believed in living life to the full.
He always had a great love of life.
He built his whole life around his children.
He devoted his life to the education of deaf children.
He ended his life a happy man.
He gave up his high-flying job and now enjoys a better quality of life.
He had been leading a double life, married to two women.
He hopes the development will breathe new life into the community.
He lost his life in an air crash.
He met the love of his life at college.
He never discussed the unhappiness of his past life.
He never let his work dominate his life.
He ruined his life through drinking.
He spent his whole life in Cornwall.
He was a miner all his working life.
He'll be haunted by the crash for the rest of his life.
Her paintings became more obscure towards the end of her life.
His fame was so sudden that he was unprepared for public life.
His foolishness almost cost him his life.
His time in London was his first glimpse of the seamier side of life.
I had the fright of my life when I saw the snake in my bed.
I owe my life to the the doctors at the hospital.
I think I may have been an animal in a previous life.
I wanted to see something of life before I settled down.
I've always had a fairly optimistic outlook on life.
I've known her all my life.
In later life he took up writing.
It's nice to see an old man still so full of life.
Japanese people have a very high life expectancy.
Learning meditation changed her life.
No lives were lost in the accident.
Only his wife had access to his inner life.
She begged the soldiers to spare her son's life.
She clung to life for several weeks.
She did not tolerate press intrusion into her private life.
She discovered jazz quite late in life.
She is still rebuilding her life after the accident.
She leads a busy social life.
She loved the Spanish way of life and immediately felt at home there.
She risked her life for the sake of the children.
She sensed she was entering a new phase in her life.
She thought marriage should be for life.
She took her own life.
She went through life always wanting what she couldn't get.
She's critically ill, on life support.
The city only comes to life at night.
The crash claimed 43 lives.
The driver showed no signs of life.
The hotel started life as a prison.
The pace of life is much gentler on the island.
The plane crashed with heavy loss of life.
There has only been one woman in her life.
There have been three attempts on the president's life.
These talks are a matter of life and death for the factory.
They both seem to want the same things out of life.
They need some new, younger staff to breathe some life into the company.
They went to Australia to start a new life.
They were enjoying the high life in the smartest hotels of New York.
They're living a life of luxury in the Bahamas.
Throughout her life she was dogged by loneliness.
Witnesses are living in fear for their life after giving evidence against the gang.
You're still in the prime of life.
a child bursting with life
a drug that will save lives
a life-support machine
a real-life drama
anti-abortionists campaigning for the right to life
for the first time in her life
Bad posture is one of the causes of back pain in later life.
He doesn't like to talk about his private life.
He has had a hard life.
He is young and has little experience of life.
He met a lot of interesting people during his life as a student.
He said the men had threatened his life.
He spent his entire adult life in France.
He will spend the rest of his life in a wheelchair.
He's lived here all his life.
How do you find life in America?
I've lived in England for most of my life.
In Italy at that time the average life of a government was eleven months.
In real life he wasn't how she had imagined him at all.
Life isn't like in the movies, you know.
Many of these children have led very sheltered lives.
My father died last year— I wish I could bring him back to life.
My grandfather lost his life in the Second World War.
My mother took up tennis late in life.
She has a full social life.
She has been an accountant all her working life.
She led a life of luxury.
The International Stock Exchange started life as a London coffee shop.
The body was cold and showed no signs of life.
The floods caused a massive loss of life.
The operation saved her life.
The product has a guaranteed shelf life of 60 days.
The worries of everyday life can become unbearable for people with this condition.
There's no such thing as a job for life any longer.
They emigrated to start a new life in America.
They were very happy throughout their married life.
We bought a dishwasher to make life easier.
We need to inject some new life into this project.
Yet more species of plant and animal life die out as their very specialized habitat is disturbed.
You mustn't let anyone know— it's a matter of life and death.
pond life

WordNet Dictionary:
1. a characteristic state or mode of living
- social life
- city life
- real life
2. the experience of being alive; the course of human events and activities
- he could no longer cope with the complexities of life
Syn: living
3. the course of existence of an individual; the actions and events that occur in living
- he hoped for a new life in Australia
- he wanted to live his own life without interference from others
4. the condition of living or the state of being alive
- while there's life there's hope
- life depends on many chemical and physical processes
Syn: animation, living, aliveness
- the battery had a short life
- he lived a long and happy life
Syn: lifetime, life-time, lifespan
- I have known him all his life
7. the period from the present until death
- he appointed himself emperor for life
- his heroism saved a life
9. animation and energy in action or expression
- it was a heavy play and the actors tried in vain to give life to it
Syn: liveliness, spirit, sprightliness
10. living things collectively
- the oceans are teeming with life
11. the organic phenomenon that distinguishes living organisms from nonliving ones
- there is no life on the moon
12. an account of the series of events making up a person's life
Syn: biography, life story, life history
13. a motive for living
- pottery was his life
14. a prison term lasting as long as the prisoner lives
- he got life for killing the guard
Syn: life sentence

Webster's 1913 Dictionary:
n.1.The state of being which begins with generation, birth, or germination, and ends with death; also, the time during which this state continues; that state of an animal or plant in which all or any of its organs are capable of performing all or any of their functions; - used of all animal and vegetable organisms.
2.Of human beings: The union of the soul and body; also, the duration of their union; sometimes, the deathless quality or existence of the soul; as, man is a creature having an immortal life.
She shows a body rather than a life.
3.(Philos) The potential principle, or force, by which the organs of animals and plants are started and continued in the performance of their several and coöperative functions; the vital force, whether regarded as physical or spiritual.
4.Figuratively: The potential or animating principle, also, the period of duration, of anything that is conceived of as resembling a natural organism in structure or functions; as, the life of a state, a machine, or a book; authority is the life of government.
5.A certain way or manner of living with respect to conditions, circumstances, character, conduct, occupation, etc.; hence, human affairs; also, lives, considered collectively, as a distinct class or type; as, low life; a good or evil life; the life of Indians, or of miners.
That which before us lies in daily life.
By experience of life abroad in the world.
Lives of great men all remind us
We can make our lives sublime.
'T is from high life high characters are drawn.
6.Animation; spirit; vivacity; vigor; energy.
No notion of life and fire in fancy and in words.
That gives thy gestures grace and life.
7.That which imparts or excites spirit or vigor; that upon which enjoyment or success depends; as, he was the life of the company, or of the enterprise.
8.The living or actual form, person, thing, or state; as, a picture or a description from, the life.
9.A person; a living being, usually a human being; as, many lives were sacrificed.
10.The system of animal nature; animals in general, or considered collectively.
Full nature swarms with life.
11.An essential constituent of life, esp: the blood.
The words that I speak unto you . . . they are life.
The warm life came issuing through the wound.
12.A history of the acts and events of a life; a biography; as, Johnson wrote the life of Milton.
13.Enjoyment in the right use of the powers; especially, a spiritual existence; happiness in the favor of God; heavenly felicity.
14.Something dear to one as one's existence; a darling; - used as a term of endearment.
Life annuity
an annuity payable during one's life.
Life arrow
an arrow, rocket, or shot, for carrying an attached line to a vessel in distress in order to save life.
Life assurance
See Life insurance, below.
Life buoy
See Buoy.
Life car
a water-tight boat or box, traveling on a line from a wrecked vessel to the shore. In it person are hauled through the waves and surf.
Life drop
a drop of vital blood.
Life estate
(Law) an estate which is held during the term of some certain person's life, but does not pass by inheritance.
Life everlasting
(Bot.) a plant with white or yellow persistent scales about the heads of the flowers, as Antennaria, and Gnaphalium; cudweed.
Life of an execution
(Law) the period when an execution is in force, or before it expires.
Life guard
(Mil.) See under Guard.
Life insurance
the act or system of insuring against death; a contract by which the insurer undertakes, in consideration of the payment of a premium (usually at stated periods), to pay a stipulated sum in the event of the death of the insured or of a third person in whose life the insured has an interest.
Life interest
an estate or interest which lasts during one's life, or the life of another person, but does not pass by inheritance.
Life land
(Law) land held by lease for the term of a life or lives.
Life line
a - (Naut.) A line along any part of a vessel for the security of sailors.
b - A line attached to a life boat, or to any life saving apparatus, to be grasped by a person in the water.
Life rate
rate of premium for insuring a life.
Life rent
the rent of a life estate; rent or property to which one is entitled during one's life.
Life school
a school for artists in which they model, paint, or draw from living models.
a table showing the probability of life at different ages.
To lose one's life
to die.
To seek the life of
to seek to kill.
To the life
so as closely to resemble the living person or the subject; as, the portrait was drawn to the life.

Dictionary of Computing:
1.(language)LIFE - Logic of Inheritance, Functions and Equations.

An object-oriented, functional, constraint-basedlanguage by Hassan Ait-Kacy et al of MCC,Austin TX, 1987. LIFE integrates ideas from LOGIN andLeFun.

Mailing list:

See also Wild_LIFE.

["Is There a Meaning to LIFE?", H. Ait-Kacy et al, Intl Confon Logic Prog, 1991].
2.(games)Life - The first popular cellular automata basedartificial life "game". Life was invented by Britishmathematician John Horton Conway in 1970 and was firstintroduced publicly in "Scientific American" later that year.

Conway first devised what he called "The Game of Life" and"ran" it using plates placed on floor tiles in his house.Because of he ran out of floor space and kept stepping on theplates, he later moved to doing it on paper or on acheckerboard, and then moved to running Life as a computerprogram on a PDP-7. That first implementation of Life as acomputer program was written by M. J. T. Guy andS. R. Bourne (the author of Unix's Bourne shell).

Life uses a rectangular grid of binary (live or dead) cellseach of which is updated at each step according to theprevious state of its eight neighbours as follows: a live cellwith less than two, or more than three, live neighbours dies.A dead cell with exactly three neighbours becomes alive.Other cells do not change.

While the rules are fairly simple, the patterns that can ariseare of a complexity resembling that of organic systems -- hencethe name "Life".

Many hackers pass through a stage of fascination with Life,and hackers at various places contributed heavily to themathematical analysis of this game (most notably Bill Gosperat MIT, who even implemented Life in TECO!; seeGosperism). When a hacker mentions "life", he is morelikely to mean this game than the magazine, the breakfastcereal, the 1950s-era board game or the human state ofexistence.



["Scientific American" 223, October 1970, p120-123, 224;February 1971 p121-117, Martin Gardner].

["The Garden in The Machine: the Emerging Science ofArtificial Life", Claus Emmeche, 1994].

["Winning Ways, For Your Mathematical Plays", ElwynR. Berlekamp, John Horton Conway and Richard K. Guy, 1982].

["The Recursive Universe: Cosmic Complexity and the Limits ofScientific Knowledge", William Poundstone, 1985].
3.(jargon)life - The opposite of Usenet. As in "Get a life!"

Legal Dictionary:

LIFE. The aggregate of the animal functions which resist death. Bichat.
     2. The state of animated beings, while they possess the power of feeling and motion. It commences in contemplation of law generally as soon as the infant is able to stir in the mother's womb; 1 Bl. Com. 129; 3 Inst. 50; Wood's Inst. 11; and ceases at death. Lawyers and legislators are not, however, the best physiologists, and it may be justly suspected that in fact life commences before the mother can perceive any motion of the foetus. 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 291.
     3. For many purposes, however, life is considered as begun from the moment of conception in ventre sa mere. Vide Foetus. But in order to acquire and transfer civil rights the child must be born alive. Whether a child is born alive, is to be ascertained from certain signs which are always attendant upon life. The fact of the child's crying is the most certain. There may be a certain motion in a new born infant which may last even for hours, and yet there may not be complete life. It seems that in order to commence life the child must be born with the ability to breathe, and must actually have breathed. 1 Briand, Med. Leg. 1ere partie, c. 6, art. 1.
     4. Life is presumed to continue at least till one hundred years. 9 Mart. Lo. R. 257 See Death; Survivorship.
     5. Life is considered by the law of the utmost importance, and its most anxious care is to protect it. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 202-3.

Logistics Interface For manufacturing Environment

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