Temper

tem·per [temper tempers tempered tempering] noun, verb BrE [ˈtempə(r)]
NAmE [ˈtempər]
noun
1. countable, usually singular, uncountable if sb has a temper, they become angry very easily
a violent/short/quick, etc. temper
He must learn to control his temper.
She broke the plates in a fit of temper.
After an hour of waiting, tempers began to fray (= people began to get angry).
2. countable, usually singular a short period of feeling very angry
to fly into a temper
She says awful things when she's in a temper.
Some small children have terrible temper tantrums.
3. countable the way that you are feeling at a particular time
Syn: mood
Come back when you're in a better temper.
to be in a bad/foul, etc. temper
4. -tempered (in adjectives) having a particular type of temper
good-/bad-tempered
a sweet-tempered child  You will find other compounds ending in -tempered at their place in the alphabet.
more at have a quick temper at quick adj.
Word Origin:
Old English temprian ‘bring something into the required condition by mixing it with something else’, from Latin temperare ‘mingle, restrain’. Sense development was probably influenced by Old French temprer ‘to temper, moderate’. The noun originally denoted a proportionate mixture of elements or qualities, also the combination of the four bodily humours, believed in medieval times to be the basis of temperament, hence senses 1 to 3 (late Middle English). Compare with temperament.
Example Bank:
Frayed tempers at the end of the match led to three players being sent off.
He broke the chair in a fit of violent temper.
He had to learn to keep his temper under control before he could become a teacher.
He has a nasty temper.
He stormed out of the room in a temper.
I only just managed to keep my temper with him.
I wasn't in the best of tempers when I arrived at the meeting.
Peter's comments were responsible for her ill temper.
She loses her temper at the drop of a hat.
She loses her temper easily.
She regained her good temper after a chat.
Tempers flared as the traffic jam became worse.
After an hour of waiting tempers began to fray.
He has a short/quick temper.
She says awful things when she's in a temper.
You must learn to control your temper.
Idiom: lose your temper
verb
1. ~ sth (with sth) (formal) to make sth less severe by adding sth that has the opposite effect
Justice must be tempered with mercy.
The hot sunny days were tempered by a light breeze.
His delight was tempered by regret.
2. ~ sth (technical) to make metal as hard as it needs to be by heating and then cooling it
tempered steel
Verb forms:
Word Origin:
Old English temprian ‘bring something into the required condition by mixing it with something else’, from Latin temperare ‘mingle, restrain’. Sense development was probably influenced by Old French temprer ‘to temper, moderate’. The noun originally denoted a proportionate mixture of elements or qualities, also the combination of the four bodily humours, believed in medieval times to be the basis of temperament, hence senses 1 to 3 (late Middle English). Compare with temperament.
Example Bank:
His delight was tempered by regret that his father was not there.

WordNet Dictionary:
I
noun
1. a sudden outburst of anger
- his temper sparked like damp firewood
Syn: pique, irritation
2. a disposition to exhibit uncontrolled anger
- his temper was well known to all his employees
Syn: biliousness, irritability, peevishness, pettishness, snappishness, surliness
3. a characteristic (habitual or relatively temporary) state of feeling
- whether he praised or cursed me depended on his temper at the time
- he was in a bad humor
Syn: mood, humor, humour
4. the elasticity and hardness of a metal object; its ability to absorb considerable energy before cracking
Syn: toughness
II
verb
1. bring to a desired consistency, texture, or hardness by a process of gradually heating and cooling
- temper glass
Syn: anneal, normalize
3. make more temperate, acceptable, or suitable by adding something else; moderate
- she tempered her criticism
Syn: season, mollify
4. harden by reheating and cooling in oil
- temper steel
Syn: harden
- he has a happy disposition
Syn: disposition
3. likely to perform unpredictably
- erratic winds are the bane of a sailor
- a temperamental motor; sometimes it would start and sometimes it wouldn't
- "that beautiful but temperamental instrument the flute"- Osbert Lancaster
Syn: erratic

Webster's 1913 Dictionary:
v. t.1.To mingle in due proportion; to prepare by combining; to modify, as by adding some new element; to qualify, as by an ingredient; hence, to soften; to mollify; to assuage; to soothe; to calm.
[imp. & p. p. Tempered ; p. pr. & vb. n. Tempering.]
Puritan austerity was so tempered by Dutch indifference, that mercy itself could not have dictated a milder system.
Woman! lovely woman! nature made thee
To temper man: we had been brutes without you.
But thy fire
Shall be more tempered, and thy hope far higher.
She [the Goddess of Justice] threw darkness and clouds about her, that tempered the light into a thousand beautiful shades and colors.
2.To fit together; to adjust; to accomodate.
Thy sustenance . . . serving to the appetite of the eater, tempered itself to every man's liking.
3.(Metal.) To bring to a proper degree of hardness; as, to temper iron or steel.
The tempered metals clash, and yield a silver sound.
4.To govern; to manage.
With which the damned ghosts he governeth,
And furies rules, and Tartare tempereth.
5.To moisten to a proper consistency and stir thoroughly, as clay for making brick, loam for molding, etc.
6.(Mus.) To adjust, as the mathematical scale to the actual scale, or to that in actual use.
n.1.The state of any compound substance which results from the mixture of various ingredients; due mixture of different qualities; just combination; as, the temper of mortar.
2.Constitution of body; temperament; in old writers, the mixture or relative proportion of the four humors, blood, choler, phlegm, and melancholy.
The exquisiteness of his [Christ's] bodily temper increased the exquisiteness of his torment.
3.Disposition of mind; the constitution of the mind, particularly with regard to the passions and affections; as, a calm temper; a hasty temper; a fretful temper.
Remember with what mild
And gracious temper he both heared and judged.
The consequents of a certain ethical temper.
4.Calmness of mind; moderation; equanimity; composure; as, to keep one's temper.
To fall with dignity, with temper rise.
Restore yourselves to your tempers, fathers.
5.Heat of mind or passion; irritation; proneness to anger; - in a reproachful sense.
6.The state of a metal or other substance, especially as to its hardness, produced by some process of heating or cooling; as, the temper of iron or steel.
7.Middle state or course; mean; medium.
The perfect lawgiver is a just temper between the mere man of theory, who can see nothing but general principles, and the mere man of business, who can see nothing but particular circumstances.
8.(Sugar Works) Milk of lime, or other substance, employed in the process formerly used to clarify sugar.
Temper screw
in deep well boring, an adjusting screw connecting the working beam with the rope carrying the tools, for lowering the tools as the drilling progresses.
v. i.1.To accord; to agree; to act and think in conformity.
2.To have or get a proper or desired state or quality; to grow soft and pliable.
I have him already tempering between my finger and my thumb, and shortly will I seal with him.

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